2020.1.16 千呼萬喚始出來--CC 4.0 已有正式華語翻譯!

林誠夏,CC 姓名標示-相同方式分享 4.0,本篇摘要報導改寫自「莊庭瑞,CC 4.0 授權條款全文已有正式的華語翻譯版本」。

林誠夏,CC 姓名標示-相同方式分享 4.0,本篇摘要報導改寫自「莊庭瑞,CC 4.0 授權條款全文已有正式的華語翻譯版本」。

2020 年才開始,CC 4.0 的翻譯工作就迎來了好消息!CC 組織已於網站發表消息[1],公告 CC 4.0 授權條款,已有了正式的傳統華語版本[2]、以及簡體中文版本[3]的翻譯;原中研院 台灣創用 CC 辦公室網站亦更新了相關資訊[4]。到這個階段,CC 4.0 的中譯工作就算已經 全然告一段落,未來大家除了在授權條款的簡明標示上,有授權標章 (Commons Deed)可以 使用,若要論到條款內容的細項,也已經有全文翻譯的正式版本可以參照!

CC 4.0 與過往版本的最大不同處,在於採翻譯政策取代本地化政策,也就是說,條款內容 不再依據各司法管轄區的法律來做本地化調適,而僅就字義做最小誤差的語言翻譯,這個作 法的優勢是讓素材能夠跨域傳散,而不會有條款內容的差異,配合資料庫特別權利的描述, 這一個版本的 CC 授權條款,非常適合資料型素材的使用,所以,如果您的作品是資料型專

案、或是影像、樂曲本質不受表現語言限制的素材,非常建議採用 CC 4.0 版本的條款來發 布,或是延用 3.0 台灣版本的授權條款時,增設「及其他版本」等向 4.0 相容的公告。

嚴格來說,華語傳統體和中文簡體在使用上有實質的差異[5],舉例來說,在軟體開發領域 頗讓工程師困擾的,就是行列的意涵完全相反,華語傳統體上採直行橫列,於中文簡體則是 直列橫行,所以 CC 4.0 在進行翻譯時,是將華語傳統體及中文簡體視為近似但卻實質不同 的兩種語言,並非單單只是字體的轉換,而是就語文使用習慣的不同,而分別進行翻譯工作。 然而,翻譯的參與者亦透過實體會議和電子郵件的方式討論,來互相分享想法與經驗。相關 的翻譯工作於 2015 年開始,一直進行到 2019 年底,這些歷程可以參照 CC 網站上的紀錄 [6]。而為了審慎處理且收納廣域社群的意見,華語傳統體的翻譯文稿,於 2016 年時也假台 灣創用 CC 網站上,依流程進行過公眾評論[7]。

當前這版華語傳統體的翻譯版本,主要是供在台灣、香港的朋友使用,但畢竟兩地的使用習 慣仍有部份差異,所以,在一些重要名詞的翻譯上,華語傳統體的翻譯採斜線 / 的方式,要 點列示,以協助使用者能快速理解,而不會產生誤會,依莊庭瑞的整理,主要有三個地方:

  • Copyright and Similar Rights 翻譯為 「著作權及相似權利」 / 「版權及相似權利」

  • Moral rights 翻譯為 著作人格權 / 精神權利

  • Attribution 翻譯為 姓名標示 / 署名

  • 以上用法左列為台灣一地的多數用語,右列為香港一地的多數用語。由歷程上來看, CC 4.0 授權條款的華語傳統體的翻譯,是由林懿萱起草,其後有林誠夏、陳舜伶、王家薰等人 參與相關討論與聯繫工作,莊庭瑞就翻譯模式與 Creative Commons 的 Diane Peters 進行 協調,並確定翻譯內容以及上線時程。

Tags: CC 4.0, License Translation, Taiwan, Traditional Chinese, 翻譯, 台灣, 華語傳統體

[1] Our 4.0 License Suite Is Now Available in Simplified and Traditional Chinese:

https://creativecommons.org/2020/01/02/cc-licenses-in-simplified-traditional- chinese/

[2] https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.zh-Hant

[3] https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.zh-Hans

[4] CC 4.0 授權條款全文已有正式的華語翻譯版本: http://creativecommons.tw/blog/20200103

[5] Differences Between Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese: https://ai.glossika.com/blog/differences-between-traditional-chinese-and-simplified- chinese

[6] https://wiki.creativecommons.org/wiki/Legal_Tools_Translation/4.0/Chinese_- _Traditional_and_Simplified

[7] http://www.creativecommons.tw/blog/20160605

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Lucien C.H. Lin, CC BY-SA 4.0, revised from "Tyng-Ruey Chuang, CC 4.0 授權條款全文已有正式的華語翻譯版本".

Right from the beginning of 2020, we have a great news to everyone, from the Creative Commons[1], about the finalization and publication of formal CC 4.0 translation for the zh-hant[2] and zh-hans[3] version. The origin of CC promotion activities in Taiwan, CC Taiwan Office at the CITI of Academia Sinica has made this news published on its website as well[4]. Reaching this stage, we can finally say that the translation work for the Traditional ZhongWen has come to the end point. From this day on, when declaring your materials under the CC 4.0 licenses, not only you can use the Common Deed on it as a short summary, but also you can attach the officially translated terms in details on it as a legal reference.

The crucial difference between CC 4.0 and previous versions is that the translation policy is used to replace the localization policy, that is, the content of terms of CC 4.0 licenses shall no longer be adjusted according to the diversely legal system of each jurisdiction, instead, only the translation will be performed to make the CC legal terms available in different languages. With this advantage of reducing discordance for the

CC legal texts, materials published under CC licenses shall be disseminated cross- boundary in a more efficient way. As a matter of fact, the CC 4.0 licenses come with the management of sui generis database right, if you are planning to publish your data project, image work, or musical composition under CC licenses, the 4.0 version is much recommended. Essentially, all the objects mentioned above might usually be reused beyond the limitation of human languages, that is, if you would make these work available under the CC 4.0 "international" licenses, or the CC 3.0 Taiwan version with an additional "or later version" statement, all of that shall be shared and promoted at maximum.

Strictly speaking, there is a substantial difference in the use of Traditional ZhongWen and Simplified ZhongWen [5]. For example, what troubles software engineers very much in the interface design area is that the meaning of “column” and “row” might sometimes be completely opposite between the Traditional ZhongWen and Simplified ZhongWen. So in the process of CC 4.0 translation, the voluntary participants treat the Traditional ZhongWen and Simplified ZhongWen as two similar but substantially different languages when performing the translation work. It is not just about the conversion of fonts, but involved with diverse meaning and use of languages. However,

the participants in the translation also do their sharing about ideas and experiences in good faith through physical meetings and e-mail discussions. Relevant translation work began in 2015 and continued until the end of 2019. These processes can be referred to the records on the CC website [6]. In order to thoughtfully handle and accommodate the opinions of the wide-area community, the translation draft of the Traditional ZhongWen was also made available for comments on the CC Taiwan Office website in 2016 [7] for the public reviewing.

The translation for Traditional ZhongWen version is mainly expected to be used by people living in Taiwan and Hong Kong. However, there are still some differences in the expression habits and common wordings between the two places. Therefore, some important nouns in the Traditional ZhongWen version are translated in the slash / emphasized method, in order to help users understand these diversities quickly without misunderstanding. According to the summary made by Tyng-Ruey Chuang, the three most important points are:

• "Copyright and Similar Rights" are introduced in the different common wordings between Taiwan and Hong Kong together in the first expression,